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BİTİRME TEZİ

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Stephen King "Two Past Midnight" ve Erol Çelik "Heyula" kitaplarinin karsilastirildigi bu basarili tez için
TESEKKÜR EDERIM
HAZIRLAYAN
Mersin Üniversitesi / Ingiliz Dil Bilimi
Ögrencisi Çigdem Duru


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CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION

        But as soon as one gets away from concrete physical experience and starts         talking about     abstract or emotions, metaphorical understanding is the norm.                                                   G.Lakoff (1993)

    Language places structure on emotional consciousness. This structure is revealed through the analysis of metaphor, metonymy, and other qualities of emotion language. A metaphor is a figure of speech in which a word or phrase that denotes a certain object or idea is applied to another word or phrase to imply some similarity between them. In other words, metaphor is using language to refer to something other than what it literally means in order to establish a kind of resemblance connection between two things. They are widespread in written language. Moon (2006) states that metaphor is important because of its functions: explaining, clarifying, describing, expressing, evaluating, and entertaining. There are many reasons why we use metaphors in speech and in writing: not least, because there is sometimes no other word to refer to a particular thing. But where we have a choice, we choose metaphors in order to communicate what we think or how we feel about something; to explain what a particular thing is like; to convey a meaning in a more interesting or creative way.
    In contrasts to some linguists who define metaphor and metonymy as figures of speech, metaphor and metonymy are two basic imaginative cognitive mechanisms. They are not figures of speech, as they are considered by many traditional objectivist approaches (see, for example, Halliday 1985: 319-20); not even the result of a wide array of contextual implications, as proposed by Relevance theory (Sperber and Wilson 1995: 231-37; Papafragou 1996; Goatly 1997)10. They are the means by which it is possible "to ground our conceptual systems experientially and to reason in a constrained but creative fashion" (Johnson 1992: 351).
    As Lakoff (1993) illustrates that the focus of metaphor is not in language at all, but in the way we conceptualize one mental domain in terms of another. The general theory of metaphor is given by characterizing such crossdomain mappings. And in the process, everyday abstract concepts like time, states, change, causation, and purpose also turn out to be metaphorical.
    Fear is another abstract term which is extensively used metaphorically in books. This paper's aim is to identify the similarities and differences observed in the naming of the sense of "fear" in Turkish and in English with reference to two different books from horror genre. Chapter I includes the introduction part which consists of research questions, hypothesis, data collection techniques, method of analysis, purpose of the study, and limitations of the study. In Chapter II, the review of literature part is presented for giving extra information about what is metaphor and how we will examine metaphors. Following that, Chapter III, data analysis part will be presented by giving concordance lines including fear metaphors. Additionally, these fear metaphors are placed in a table to show their frequencies. And for the last part of data analysis, the sentences including fear metaphors are decoded in a comparative sense. Finally, Chapter IV is the conclusion part which is an overall look of the thesis.

I.1. Research Questions
1.    What are the most common fear metaphors, metonymies, and image schemas in these two books?
2.    How do fear metaphors, metonymies, and image schemas differ in these two books and why?

I.2. Hypothesis
1.    There are certain kinds of differences in the description of fear because of different cultural backgrounds, ways of thinking, and way of using language. So, there are differences between the description of fear in Turkish and in English.
2.    The most commonly used Turkish and English conceptual fear metaphors, metonymies, and image schemas in everyday language like "Fear is possession", "Fear is physical force", "Fear is cold and dark" are observed in these two books. Creative fear metaphors which are different from ordinary conceptual metaphors by means of innovation are rarely observed in the books.
3.    In Turkish, there are some different conceptual mappings which do not have any equivalent in English and vice versa.  Despite these differences, we see that Turkish cultural model of fear observed in "Heyula" is not very much different than the cultural model of fear in English book "Two Past Midnight". These are because of cultural differences between two nations.

I.3. Data Collection
    The data is collected by analyzing two different books belonging to horror genre: Stephen King's "Four Past Midnight" and Erol Çelik's "Heyula".
     Firstly, different general descriptions of fear in Turkish and in English are searched from different dictionaries and sources to find out how the description of fear differs in Turkish and in English.
    Secondly, the books are read carefully in order to determine the imagery and figurative details used for the sense of "fear". These details include metaphors, metonymies, and personification of fear. In addition to this, the cultural factors that shape fear both in English and Turkish are examined with reference to these two horror books.
    Finally, the findings will be compared with reference to Kövecses and Lakoff's emotion metaphor theories.

I.4. Method of Analysis
    This paper is a comparative cross-linguistic study whose aim is to identify the similarities and differences observed in the naming of the sense of "fear" in Turkish and in English. Metaphors, metonymies, and other kinds of figurative details build up the data part of this thesis. The paper is limited by choosing two different books in Turkish and English by leading authors of horror genre. Our basic lexemes are "Korku" for Turkish and "Fear" for English. The data is collected by analyzing two different books from the horror genre: Stephen King's "Four Past Midnight" and Erol Çelik's "Heyula". First, the books are read carefully in order to find out the imagery and figurative details used for the sense of "fear". These details include metaphors and personification of fear. As for the second part, the books are reread to define how the description of fear differs in Turkish and English. Finally, the cultural factors that shape fear both in English and Turkish are examined with reference to these books.
    To analyze data, the different descriptions of fear in Turkish and English from different dictionaries and sources are presented. After that, the data extracted from the books for the different descriptions of fear are given in a comparative sense. Secondly, the imagery and figurative details for fear, found in the books, are listed one by one. Their frequency in the book is given in a table. Mainly, conceptual metaphors for fear are studied in this section of the paper. As the final part of this paper, the findings are compared in the light of their differences. The Conceptual Metaphor Theory by Lakoff and Johnson (1999) is the basic source for data collection, and Kövecses (1988, 2000)'s Emotional Metaphor Theory is used for comparison of the data.
I.5. Purpose of the Study
    The purpose of this study is to reveal the similarities and differences observed in the naming of the sense of "fear" in Turkish and in English. While doing this, metaphors of fear in two separate books from Turkish and English are analyzed. There are certain kinds of differences in the description of fear because of different cultural backgrounds, ways of thinking, and way of using language. So, there are differences between the description of fear in Turkish and in English. The most commonly used Turkish and English conceptual fear metaphors, metonymies, and image schemas in everyday language like "Fear is possession", "Fear is physical force", "Fear is cold and dark" are observed in these two books. Creative fear metaphors which are different from ordinary conceptual metaphors by means of innovation are rarely observed in the books. In Turkish, there are some different conceptual mappings which do not have any equivalent in English and vice versa.  Despite these differences, we see that Turkish cultural model of fear observed in "Heyula" is not very much different than the cultural model of fear in English book "Two Past Midnight". These are because of cultural differences between two nations.

I.6. Limitations of the Study
    This thesis is limited by choosing two horror books. One is "Heyula" written by Turkish author Erol Çelik and the other one is "Two Past Midnight" by one of the leading American authors. Only the lines including metaphors related with fear are taken into consideration. Fear metaphors are analyzed by looking at their target domains, source domains, and frequency in the books.

CHAPTER II: REVIEW OF LITERATURE

    By using metaphors, much more can be conveyed, through implication and connotation, than through straightforward. In conventional metaphors, meanings are more fixed, and do not normally involve process of implication by the writer and inference by the reader. But the metaphorical content is interesting nevertheless. Knowles and Moon (2005) say that the ideas, assumptions, and beliefs of a culture are presented in its conventional metaphors, even if it is not apparent on the surface.
    Creative writers commonly use metaphors, and because literature is a part of culture, metaphor and culture can be seen intimately linked. After all, metaphor can be seen as the ornamental use of language. Thus, metaphor and culture may be seen as being related to each other because they are combined in literature- an exemplary manifestation of culture (Kövecses, 2005).
As Barcelona (1997: 12) puts it both mechanisms are "complex mental mappings of our knowledge of one domain of experience (the source domain) to structure our knowledge of a different domain of experience (the target domain)". But, whereas in metaphor, we project part of one conceptual domain onto another separate domain, in metonymy, the projection takes place within the same domain.
The Target Domain of each metaphor is on the left (States, Changes, etc.) and the Source Domain is after the verb "is" or "are" (Locations, Movements, etc.). Recall that the Target Domain is understood metaphorically in terms of the Source Domain.
For instance, in the sentence I see what you mean; we have two different experiential domains: the source domain of the bodily act of visual perception and the target domain of intellection. The mapping between these two different conceptual domains is carried out by means of metaphor. However, in Mary tasted the camembert, the mapping does not take place between different conceptual domains, but within the same domain through metonymy; instead of the word cheese, we have the name of the place where it is produced (Radden and Kövecses, 1996).
In many cases, some experiences are more directly mapped and understood metaphorically or metonymically on the basis of 'image schemas'. These are "preconceptual structures that we acquire as a result of our earliest bodily experiences" (Barcelona 1997: 12). Sentences such as Prices are going down or Turn up the radio are based on the metaphor MORE IS UP / LESS IS DOWN. This metaphorical projection from MORE to UP is in turn based on our understanding of quantity in terms of the VERTICALITY schema. This schema is based on our everyday bodily experience: whenever we put more liquid in a container, the level goes up.
    Most of these image schemas, metaphors and metonymies operate on the basis of a conventional 'frame' or ICM. For instance, the metonymic mapping between the food eaten and the customer in Lakoff and Johnson's (1980: 35) example The ham sandwich is waiting for his check works against the background of the conventional restaurant frame or ICM.
    In the following part, the data analysis, fear metaphors extracted from the books will be listed. The source domains and target domains will be found with reference to metaphor analysis techniques. Then, we will decode the sentences. In the last part, we will see the frequency table of fear metaphors in found in "Heyula" by Erol Çelik and "Two Past Midnight" by Stephan King.

CHAPTER III: DATA CLASIFICATION

    The data of this paper is the concordance lines collected from the books "Heyula" by Erol Çelik and "Two past midnight" by Stephen King. Samples are analyzed in consideration of Lakoff and Johnson (1999)'s Conceptual Metaphor Theory and Köveses's Metaphor and Emotion Theory. The extracted conceptual metaphors and conceptual metonymies are examined for their source domain (concrete conceptual area) and target domain (abstract conceptual area).
    Firstly, Turkish fear metaphors found in "Heyula" will be listed examined under the source domains OPPONENT, CONTAINER, COLD, POSESSION, PHYSICAL FORCE(LOSS OF CONTROL-FLOWING), SMELL and so on.
    Then, English fear metaphors extracted from "Two Past Midnight" will be analyzed under different source domains.
    Thirdly, one sentence from each group will be selected and will be decoded.
    And finally, findings from the Turkish book "Heyula" and the English book "Two Past Midnight" will be compared with the help of a table which shows frequency of the fear metaphors in these books. 
III.1. TURKISH FEAR METAPHORS IN "HEYULA"
    Below are the sentences including different kinds of fear metaphors extracted from the Turkish book "Heyula":

1.     FEAR IS AN OPPONENT
Source: Opponent        Target: Fear
    1.1. Korku binlerce çığlık tarafından saldırınca, ürpererek hemen ışığı açtı. (Kızıl Çilli     Çiyan, 45)
    1.2. Bunun için elinden geldiği kadar korkusuyla savaşacaktı. (Hoşt, 122)
    1.3. Bu kadar planı boşuna yapmadım ben, o korkak kız evde olmak zorunda diyerek, bu     korkusunu yenmeye çalıştı. (Dilenci, 200)
    1.4. Sanki Düzce'ye gelme sebebinin bu korkusuyla yüzleşmek olduğu hissi uyanmıştı     içinde. (Temmuz Yağmuru, 18)

2. FEAR IS POSESSION
Source: Possession        Target: Fear
    2.1. Kapının üstündeki düğmeye bastıktan sonra, bilinçaltındaki korkusu kendini     göstermeye başladı. (Vasiyet, 4)
    2.2. "Sorun yok!" Cem, kızın korkusunu fark edince biraz olsun rahatladı. (Vasiyet, 7)
    2.3. Bir de korkusu vardı ki, sadece beyninde yaşamıyordu onu, kalbi de durmak     üzereydi. (Kızıl Çilli Çiyan, 47)
    2.4. Başını arkaya çeviremiyordu oysa oranında, korkusu kadar karanlık olduğunu     biliyordu. (Kızıl Çilli Çiyan, 71)
    2.5. Ömer, bütün korkularının önüne geçen gururunun tadını çıkardı. (Hoşt, 112)
    2.6. Buradan sonra kendi korkularınız başlar. (Kızıl Çilli Çiyan, 69)
    2.7. Galiba neler olacağını tahmin ediyor ve bu yüzden korkusu katlanıyordu. (Vasiyet,     10)
    2.8. Bunu anladığı zaman korkusunun üzerinde yeni çekirgeler sıçramaya başladı. (Kızıl     Çilli Çiyan, 47)

3. FEAR IS A CONTAINER
Source: Container        Target: Fear
    3.1. İçinde hiçbir korkunun olmayışını anlayınca mutlu oldu. (Kızıl Çilli Çiyan, 58)
    3.2. İnsan, gerçek korkuyu kendi içindeki karanlıkta yaşar. (Kızıl Çilli Çiyan, 68)   
    3.3. Arkadaşlar, alkol ve yıllar önce içine gömdüğü korkuları. (Temmuz Yağmuru, 26)
    3.4. İçindeki tanıdık duygunun ne olduğunu hatırladı, korku. (Temmuz Yağmuru, 30)

4. FEAR IS HEAT
Source: Heat        Target: Fear
    4.1. Feray tekrar çaresizliğin ve korkunun sıcaklığını hissetti. (Temmuz Yağmuru, 10)

5. FEAR IS DARK
Source: Dark/Darkness        Target: Fear
    5.1. Korku karanlıktı şimdi. (Kızıl Çilli Çiyan, 70)
    5.2. Başını arkaya çeviremiyordu oysa oranın da korkusu kadar karanlık olduğunu     biliyordu. (Kızıl Çilli Çiyan, 71)

6. FEAR IS A MIXTURE WITH ANOTHER FEELING
Source: Mixture with another feeling        Target: Fear
    6.1. Feray'da bağırmaya başlamıştı ama onunki korkudandı ve ağlamıyordu. (Vasiyet,     9)
    6.2. Feray tekrar çaresizliğin ve korkunun sıcaklığını hissetti. (Temmuz Yağmuru, 10)
    6.3. Ama kontrol edebildiği bir korkunun heyecanı vardı nefes alışlarında. (Vasiyet, 5)
    6.4.  Kalbi korkudan mı, yoksa hazdan mı bilinmez, gümbür gümbür atıyordu. (İmza,     223)
    6.5. Küçük kız, annesinin gözlerindeki, şüpheyle karışık korkuyu görünce telaşlandı. (Kızıl Çilli Çiyan, 34)
    6.6. Hissettiği en yoğun şey, korku ve çaresizlikti. (Kızıl Çilli Çiyan, 48)

7. INSANE BEHAVIOUR STANDS FOR FEAR
Source: Insane behaviour        Target: Fear
    7.1. Deliler gibi bağırmak, korkularını gözlerinden dışarı akıtmak istiyordu. Çıldıran     beyninde kendisine tanıdık gelen şeylerde oluyordu. (Kızıl Çilli Çiyan, 48)

8. FEAR IS BODILY BIOLOGICAL REACTIONS (Embodiment)
Source: Bodily biological reaction        Target: Fear
    8.1. Evet, beş yıl önce olsa korkardı hatta kalbi ağzında atardı. (Temmuz Yağmuru, 18)
    8.2. Buradan sonra kendi korkularınız başlar. Eylül kalbinin buz gibi olduğunu hissetti.     (Kızıl Çilli Çiyan, 70)
    8.3. Kalbi korkudan mı, yoksa hazdan mı bilinmez, gümbür gümbür atıyordu. (İmza,     223)
8.4. Önce peşinde korkunç bir şey varmış gibi kapıyı açmış, daha sonra korkacak şeyin içeride olduğunu öğrenmiş gibi dona kalmıştı. (Kızıl Çilli Çiyan, 34)
8.5. Kafası darmadağın olmuş, onca karmaşık düşüncenin arasında, korku ön plana çıkmıştı. (Kızıl Çilli Çiyan, 34)
8.6. Aslında hissettiği acı öylesine dayanılmaz değildi, daha çok yaşadığı korku kalbine baskı yapıyordu. (Kızıl Çilli Çiyan, 47)

9. FEAR IS INCREASE
Source: Increase        Target: Fear
    9.1. Galiba neler olacağını tahmin ediyor ve bu yüzden korkusu katlanıyordu. (Vasiyet,     10)

10. FEAR IS SMELL
Source: Smell        Target: Fear
    10.1. Korku da geliyordu burnuna gelen ve aklında birçok anıyı çağıran kokunun     içinden. (Temmuz Yağmuru, 15)

11. FEAR IS UNDER CONTROL/ OUT OF CONTROL
Source: Under/out of control        Target: Fear
11.1. Ama kontrol edebildiği bir korkunun heyecanı vardı nefes alışlarında. (Under control) (Vasiyet, 5)
11.2. Kapının üstündeki düğmeye bastıktan sonra bilinçaltındaki korkusu kendini göstermeye başladı. (Out of control) (Vasiyet, 4)


12. FEAR IS DIRTY/STICKY
Source: Dirty/sticky        Target: Fear
    12.1. Kirli ve yapışkan bir korku. (Kızıl Çilli Çiyan, 37)

13. FEAR IS SCREAM/SHOUT/YELL
Source: Scream/shout/yell        Target: Fear
13.1. Feray da bağırmaya başlamıştı ama onunki korkudandı ve ağlamıyordu. (Vasiyet, 9)
13.2. Eylül bütün korkularıyla bağırmak istedi. (Kızıl Çilli Çiyan, 49)
    13.3. Kadın bir kez daha çığlık attı. Onca karmakarışık düşüncenin arasında korku ön     plana çıkmıştı. (Kızıl Çilli Çiyan, 37)
    13.4. Ablan korkusundan çığlıklar atarak gelmeyi kabul etti. (Kızıl Çilli Çiyan, 63)
    13.5. En son öyle yüksek bir korkuyla bağırdı ki, karanlık titredi. (Kızıl Çilli Çiyan, 71)
    13.6.  Korkudan bağırdığını hatırladı, Mert duymuş muydu? (Kızıl Çilli Çiyan, 71)

III.2. ENGLISH FEAR METAPHORS IN "TWO PAST MIDNIGHT"
    Sentences below including fear metaphors are extracted from Stephen King's book "Two Past Midnight".

1. Fear is a HIDDEN ENEMY
Source: Hidden enemy        Target: Fear
    1.1. Fear began to creep into him again, seeming to flow up his legs toward his vitals.     (The Langoliers, 91)
    1.2. There was nothing to see but the empty concrete and the moveless white sky, but his eyes began to widen nonetheless and he felt fear begin to steal into his heart. (The Langoliers, 177)
1.3. She felt a sense of unknown awe creep into her, a feeling which almost touched upon fear. (The Langoliers, 381)

2.    FEAR IS POSSESSION
Source: Possession        Target: Fear
2.1.     Don't give up your fear ... but don't give in to it, either. (The Langoliers, 16)
2.2.     …was adding to her fear rather than alleviating it. (The Langoliers, 22)
2.3.     Laurel forgot some of her own fear and perplexity, at least temporarily, and hugged the little girl. (The Langoliers, 80)
2.4.     Craig looked ... and forgot his fear. (The Langoliers, 351)
2.5.    Don't give up your fear ... but don't give in to it, either. (The Langoliers, 16)

3.    FEAR IS A PHYSICAL FORCE
Source: Physical force        Target: Fear
3.1.    Mort felt a jolt of fear. (Secret Window, 157)

4. FEAR IS A MIXTURE WITH ANOTHER FEELING
Source: Mixture with another feeling        Target: Fear
4.1. He felt a mixture of fear and chagrin, and his thoughts narrowed to a single point. (Secret Window, 3)
4.2. His wide eyes began to prickle with tears of rage and fear. (Secret Window, 154)
4.3. The rage and the fear were gone. (Secret Window, 67)
4.4. Nor did Shooter seem like the kind of nut who would enjoy watching Mort's obvious fear and horror. (Secret Window, 76)
4.5. Mort felt such a spurt of horror and fear that he almost cried out aloud. (Secret Window, 160)
4.6. Laurel forgot some of her own fear and perplexity, at least temporarily, and hugged the little girl. (The Langoliers, 80)
4.7. Her voice was calm enough, but her small face was an imprint of loneliness and fear. (The Langoliers, 258)
4.8. On his ruined, bloody face she saw a terrible mixture of emotions: fear, hope, and a kind of merciless determination. (The Langoliers, 339)

5. FEAR IS A BEING
Source: Being        Target: Fear
5.1. The rage and the fear were gone. (Secret Window, 67)
5.2. Once the door was closed, the fear returned. (Secret Window, 8)
6. FEAR IS A CONTAINER
Source: Container        Target: Fear
6.1. Don't give up your fear ... but don't give in to it, either. (The Langoliers, 16)
6.2. But he felt the fear begin in his belly just the same. (The Langoliers, 440)

7. INSANE BEHAVIOUR STANDS FOR FEAR
Source: Insane behavior        Target: Fear
    7.1. …as a person who fears he is losing his mind will try to block out the murmur of     phantom voices. (The Langoliers, 21)

8. FEAR IS INCREASE
Source: Increase        Target: Fear
8.1. … was adding to her fear rather than alleviating it. (The Langoliers, 22)

9. FEAR IS BODILY BIOLOGICAL REACTIONS (Embodiment)
Source: Bodily biological reactions        Target: Fear
    9.1. Then Brian did something which made Albert 'Ace' Kaussner's heart begin to bump faster with fear... (The Langoliers, 63)

10. FEAR IS SMELL
Source: Smell            Target: Fear
10.1. Even in the dead air he could smell himself. It was the rancid monkeypiss aroma of fear. (The Langoliers, 305)
10.2. That and the sweaty stink of fear coming off the boy were smells with which he was all too familiar. (The Langoliers, 314)
11. FEAR IS COLD
Source: Cold            Target: Fear
11.1. Even the sky seemed to shake with it, and for a moment fear froze him in place. The Langoliers, 350)

12. FEAR IS TASTE
Source: Taste            Target: Fear
12.1. His mouth was cold, and she tasted fear on his breath. (The Langoliers, 423)

III.3. DECODINGS OF THE SENTENCES INCLUDING FEAR METAPHORS

1.     Fear is an MIXTURE WITH ANOTHER FEELING
    Turkish: Hissettiği en yoğun şey, korku ve çaresizlikti.
English: The rage and the fear were gone.
Fear is a feeling of mankind. While expressing fear, other kinds of emotions related to fear are used in the sentences above like "desperateness" (çaresizlik) in Turkish sentence from Heyula and "rage" in English sentence from Two Past Midnight.

2.    Fear is POSSESSION
    Turkish: Bir de korkusu vardı ki, sadece beyninde yaşamıyordu onu, kalbi de durmak üzereydi.
English: Craig looked ... and forgot his fear.
Fear is a kind of possession in the lines above. Usage of the person suffixes korku-u/-ı (his/her fear), korkular-ınız (your fear) and personal pronouns show the possession of fear. Additionally, "var" (has/have) in Turkish is another sign for possession in these fear metaphors. Possession in English is expressed by "have-construction".

3.    Fear is a CONTAINER
    Turkish: İçinde hiçbir korkunun olmayışını anlayınca mutlu oldu.
English:  But he felt the fear begin in his belly just the same.
    The use of the word "inside" is quite common in the expression of emotions in languages. Body as the container is central for our conceptual system and universal (Kövecses, 1995). The fear metaphors and metaphorical expressions can be categorized under container metaphors because the user experiences being either "on" or "in" the metaphorical container. In both of the sentences, içinde (in) preposition is used to refer fear is a container.

4.    Fear is BODILY BIOLOGICAL REACTION
    Turkish: Kalbi korkudan mı, yoksa hazdan mı bilinmez, gümbür gümbür atıyordu.
English: Then Brian did something which made Albert 'Ace' Kaussner's heart begin to bump faster with fear.
Fear is a biological response; it's that adrenaline rush that goes through you, that's a physical response. When we are afraid of something, we show a bodily biological reaction. Beating of the heart is a usual response observed when someone is afraid of something. In the Turkish sentence, korkudan kalbi gümbür gümbür atmak (heart beats with a loud noise with fear) and in the English sentence heart begin to bump faster are used to show biological reactions caused by fear.

5.    INSANE BEHAVIOUR stands for Fear
    Turkish: Deliler gibi bağırmak, korkularını gözlerinden dışarı akıtmak istiyordu.
English: … as a person who fears he is losing his mind will try to block out the murmur of     phantom voices.
The cultural model of fear in both Turkish and English elaborates on the overt signals as a negative emotion experienced by the individual. Feeling of fear not only results in bodily biological reactions, but also interferes with mental faculties. The mind of an afraid person cannot function normally. Going mad, losing mind, and deliler gibi bağırmak (screaming like mad) are some of the signs of insane behaviours which stand for fear.


6.    Fear is INCREASE
    Turkish: Galiba neler olacağını tahmin ediyor ve bu yüzden korkusu katlanıyordu.
English: … was adding to her fear rather than alleviating it.
In the horror books "Heyula" and "Two Past Midnight", we come across just the increase in the feeling of fear rather than decrease in this feeling.

7.    Fear is SMELL
    Turkish: Korku da geliyordu burnuna gelen ve aklında birçok anıyı çağıran kokunun içinden.
English: That and the sweaty stink of fear coming off the boy were smells with which he was all too familiar.
Smell is perhaps the most evocative emotion and may be used to trigger deep emotions like fear. Smell metaphor is used to express idea of good, bad, and more. In the fear is smell metaphors above, it can be understood that fear is not an adorable feeling. We understand this from the usage of "the sweaty stink of fear" which has a negative connotation.

8.    Fear is an OPPONENT
Turkish: Bunun için elinden geldiği kadar korkusuyla savaşacaktı.
English: No equivalent
These lines reflect the negative semantic prosody of fear to show it is like an opponent who will be defeated. We understand it in this way because of the semantic preference of the verb "savaşmak". Fear is seen as an opponent in a struggle which should be defeated.


9.    Fear is an SCREAM
Turkish: Eylül bütün korkularıyla bağırmak istedi.
English: No equivalent
Screaming or making a kind of voice is a biological effect/result in the time of fear. Korkularıyla bağırmak (screaming in fear) is observed in "Heyula" but no counterpart is observed in English book "Two Past Midnight".

10.    Fear is HEAT
Turkish: Feray tekrar çaresizliğin ve korkunun sıcaklığını hissetti.
English: No equivalent
Fear is heat metaphor has its experiential bases in the functioning of the human body. In Turkish sentence, korkunun sıcaklığını hissetti (feeling the heat of fear), the experience of fear correlates with the experience of heat. This correlation of our emotional experience and bodily experience serves as the basis of the metaphor.

11.    Fear is DARK
Turkish: Korku karanlıktı şimdi.
English: No equivalent
As darkness relates with negative connotation in our minds, it is linked with fear in "fear is dark" metaphor. Both fear and darkness remind of bad and evil things. In other words, they share the same kinds of emotions.

12.    Fear is UNDER/OUT OF CONTROL
Turkish: Ama kontrol edebildiği bir korkunun heyecanı vardı nefes alışlarında.
English: No equivalent
Fear is seen as an emotion which can or cannot be taken under control. In the Turkish book "Heyula", we come across with both of them, but in the English book, fear is under or out of control metaphor does not take place.

13.    Fear is DIRTY/STCIKY
Turkish: Kirli ve yapışkan bir korku.
English: No equivalent
As dirty and sticky have negative connotation like fear, this kind of metaphor which is "fear is dirty/sticky" arises. It does not have an equivalent in English book.

14.    Fear is HIDDEN ENEMY
    Turkish: No equivalent
English: Fear began to creep into him again, seeming to flow up his legs toward his vitals.
In this metaphor, fear is seen as an enemy which hides itself and tries to harm. It does not show itself and sneaks up on somebody. It does not have an equivalent in Turkish book.

15.    Fear is PHYSICAL FORCE
    Turkish: No equivalent
English: Mort felt a jolt of fear.


16.    Fear is a BEING
    Turkish: No equivalent
English: Once the door was closed, the fear returned.
Transference of features belonging to humans to feeling is one of the most known ways in producing metaphors. In the English fear metaphor above, "Fear is a being", an action belonging to living things is transferred to fear.

17.    Fear is COLD
    Turkish: No equivalent
English: Even the sky seemed to shake with it, and for a moment fear froze him in place.
Fear is conceptualized linguistically as cold because the feeling fear and the sensation cold share the same physiological manifestations. The reaction of ones body to fear is the same as the reaction of one's body to cold. The reaction of the mind to fear became conceptualized by language as the reaction of the body to cold.

18.    Fear is TASTE
    Turkish: No equivalent
English: His mouth was cold, and she tasted fear on his breath.
Metaphors related to taste are used to express good or bad entities. As we understand from the English sentence which includes the metaphor "fear is taste", there is something undesirable in the context and this is explained by taste metaphor.

III.4. FREQUENCY TABLE

Source Domains    Frequency of Fear Metaphors
     HEYULA    TWO PAST MIDNIGHT
MIXTURE WITH ANOTHER FEELING    6    8
POSSESSION    8    5
CONTAINER    4    2
BODILY BIOLOGICAL REACTION    6    1
INSANE BEHAVIOUR    1    1
INCREASE    1    1
SMELL    1    2
OPPONENT    4    No equivalent
SCREAM    6    No equivalent
HEAT    1    No equivalent
DARK    2    No equivalent
UNDER/OUT OF CONTROL    2    No equivalent
DIRTY/STICKY    1    No equivalent
HIDDEN ENEMY    No equivalent    3
PHYSICAL FORCE    No equivalent    1
BEING    No equivalent    2
COLD    No equivalent    1
TASTE    No equivalent    1

Table.1. Frequency of fear metaphors in "Heyula" and "Two Past Midnight"
By looking at the frequency table, we can say that:

"    While Turkish horror book "Heyula" and English horror book "Two Past Midnight" share 7 common conceptual fear metaphors, 11 different kinds of fear metaphors are observed in the data of this paper.
"    Turkish book "Heyula" and English book "Two Past Midnight" share half of fear metaphors (mixture with another feeling, possession, container, bodily biological reaction, insane behaviour, increase, and smell).
"     They differentiate in the other half of the table (opponent, scream, heat, dark, under/out of control, dirty/sticky, hidden enemy, physical force, being, cold, and taste).


IV. CONCLUSION

    As a conclusion, within the framework of the conceptual metaphor theory, this study examines universal versus language-specific patterns in metaphorical motion event descriptions, comparing English and Turkish. The analysis focuses on the crosslinguistic similarities and differences in the target domains and the types of metaphorical mappings that are structured by spatial motion. The data includes written texts ("Heyula" by Erol Çelik and "Two Past Midnight" by Stephen King) in English and Turkish.
    Results indicate strong crosslinguistic similarity in the target domains and the types of metaphorical mappings. Crosslinguistic variation, on the other hand, became evident in the specification of the source domain structure, particularly in describing the manner component of a metaphorical motion event.
    It is observed that both English writer Stephen King and Turkish writer Erol Çelik pay greater linguistic attention to the way one moves from point A to point B metaphorically, using a greater amount and variety of motion verbs that encoded manner. Overall, the analysis revealed the source domain structure to be the best candidate for systematic language-based variation in a metaphorical event.
As a conclusion, we can say that the shared human biology and the effects of emotional states can be said to produce the same physiological effects in humans. In the data analysis part, it is observed that between 18 fear metaphors Turkish book "Heyula" and English book "Two Past Midnight" share 7 fear metaphors whose source domains are mixture with another feeling, possession, container, bodily biological reaction, insane behaviour, increase, and smell. They differentiate in the other half of the table in 11 fear metaphors including source domains opponent, scream, heat, dark, under/out of control, dirty/sticky, hidden enemy, physical force, being, cold, and taste.
BIBLIOGRAPHY

Kövecses, Z. (2000). Metaphor and Emotion: Language, Culture, and Body in Human     Feeling. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Aitchison, J. (1978). Linguistics: An introduction (2nd ed.). London: Hodder & Stoughton.
Averill, J. R. & Kövecses, Z. (1990). The concepts of emotion: Further metaphors. New York,     NY, US: Springer-Verlag Publishing.
Lakoff, G. & Mark, J. (1980). Metaphors we live by. Chicago & London: The University of     Chicago Press.


Web Sources

Robinson, W. C. (2004). A few thoughts on the horror genre. Available from:    http://web.utk.edu/~wrobinso/590_lec_horror.html
Wilkinson, P. R. (2002). Thesaurus of traditional English metaphors. Available from:     http://www.google.com/books
Unknown writer. Metaphor analysis project. Available from:    http://creet.open.ac.uk/projects/metaphor-analysis/project-introduction.cfm
Zrvyde, R. (2006). Facing fear: A corpus based approach to fear metaphors in English and     Lithuanian. Available from:
    http://www.vpu.lt/zmogusirzodis/PDF/svetimosioskalbos/2006/sirvyde.pdf
Apresjan, V. (1997). Emotion metaphors and cross-linguistic conceptualization of emotions.     Available from dialnet.unirioja.es/servlet/fichero_articulo?codigo=2526528...0

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